A Collection of Cosmetic Dermatology & Surgery

does-this-chin-make-me-look-fat

The skin is the largest organ of the human body, providing a physical barrier against pathogens, abrasions, and radiation. Along with being the primary level of protection for our bodies, the skin prevents dehydration, provides sensation, and performs heat regulation and secretion. With its wide array of functions, it is obvious that our skin is very important. Being an aspiring dermatologist, I wanted to build a library that would help me better understand, examine, and diagnose what in my opinion, is one of the body’s most vital organs – the skin.

From the earliest works on cosmetic procedures dating from the 16th century to the most modern books on clinical dermatology read by many of today’s renowned physicians, it is evident that the art of beauty has and always will be in high demand. No matter what century we are in, women and men alike will always strive to look their best. From keeping skin healthy and radiant, as well as going under the knife, people will do anything to look young and perfect.

Obviously, my book collection will include some of the first and most famous works on dermatology; however, with special interests in the field of aesthetic dermatology, I have also selected books that encompass aspects of facial beauty and cosmetic surgery. By providing me with a deeper knowledge of the symptoms and treatments of various cutaneous ailments and a better understanding of the physical structure of skin and the human face, the books in my collection will allow me to better serve my patients as I perform anything from biopsies to Botox procedures.

De Curtorum Chirurgia per Insitionem
1. Tagliacozzi, Gaspare. De Curtorum Chirugia Per Insitionem. Venetiis: Apud G. Bindonum iuniorem, 1597.

While all of the books in my collection hold a special meaning, several of these books stand out from the rest in their content as well as their physical beauty. The first of these special books is Gaspare Tagliacozzi’s book De Curtorum Chirugia Per Insitionem, translated as The Surgery of Defects by Implantations. Published in 1597, De Curtorum Chirugia Per Insitionem was the first book to document facial reconstruction, thoroughly accounting one of the earliest rhinoplasty procedures ever performed. The book additionally documents several cosmetic treatments to the eyes and lips. With 22 woodcut illustrations showing surgical methods and instruments of plastic surgery, this book is definitely the first of its kind.

book collage1

Clinical Dermatology 5th Edition

2. Habif, Thomas. Clinical Dermatology: A Color Guide to Diagnosis and Therapy. Maryland Heights: Mosby, 2009.

Recognized as one of the world’s most leading dermatology texts, Clinical Dermatology: A Color Guide to Diagnosis and Therapy by Thomas P. Habif, is another top read in my collection. In 26 chapters, Dr. Habif provides students and experienced physicians a thorough documentation of the skin and almost all of its diseases. With over 1000 full color, high definition photographs, the book is not only beautiful in its printing, but also in its use to help dermatologists diagnose and treat patients. Clinical Dermatology is also available in e-book format, making it perfect for an on-the-go medical student.

willan

3. Willan, Robert. On Cutaneous Diseases. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 1998.

Another gem in my collection is Robert Willan’s On Cutaneous Diseases. Originally published in 1808, the work is the first illustrated textbook on dermatology. The book documents all known skin diseases of the time, including detailed and colorful illustrations. While makes this text so remarkable is that one physician, over 200 years ago, culminated such a comprehensive work that is still widely praised today. Although On Cutaneous Diseases is hard to find on the market today, Wiley-Blackwell published a CD-ROM containing the full text with high-resolution, enhanced digital images of the original illustrations available on Amazon.

Plastic_surgery

The additional pieces in my collection relate to my field of interest, cosmetic dermatology. All of the following works have not only contributed to the medical world, but have also aided in making cosmetic procedures a norm in today’s society. Because healthy skin is very important to one’s self-image and overall health, I hope that my collection will one day allow me to assist my patients, by providing services and procedures that will help them look and feel beautiful.

4. Miller, Charles. Cosmetic Surgery: the Correction of Featural Imperfections. Chicago: Oak Printing Co., 1907.

While originally privately published due to its controversial subject matter, Dr. Charles Conrad Miller’s work, Cosmetic Surgery: the Correction of Featural Imperfections, was the first book ever written exclusively about cosmetic surgery.

surgical anatomy
5. Larrabee, W., Makielski, K., & Hederson, J. Surgical Anatomy of the Face. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003.

With photographs and illustrations by a head and neck surgeon, Surgical Anatomy of the Human Face provides a complete atlas of facial anatomy and related structures. The insight from practicing head and neck surgeons allows the book to demonstrate important anatomical relationships and the latest surgical techniques.

A040198-1-500x500

6. Bolognia, J., Jorizzo, J., & Schaffer, J. Dermatology. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2012.

Referred to as “The Bible of Dermatology,” Dermatology is one of the most comprehensive, up-to-date medical texts on dermatology, providing its readers with diagnoses and treatments for almost all known skin diseases. A must have for anyone interested in the field of dermatology!

books

7. Aston, S., Streinbrech, D., & Walden, J. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2009.

Three expert plastic surgeons share their techniques for today’s most popular cosmetic procedures. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery comes with a DVD, demonstrating the operative techniques described in the book. The set is additionally available in e-book format for Kindle.

515a9qSUMYL._SY300_

8. Lipham, W. Cosmetic and Clinical Applications of Botox and Dermal Fillers. Thorofare: Slack Incorporated, 2007.

Dr. Lipham provides his readers with a broad amount of information about the popular facial rejuvenation product, Botox. Cosmetic and Clinical Applications of Botox and Dermal Fillers discusses Botox and other dermal filler agents that can be used both cosmetically and clinically for ailments such as migraines and hyperhidrosis.

nip-tuck-season-6

9. Murphy, Ryan. Nip/Tuck.  Premiered 2003.

Airing in 2003, the fictional series, Nip/Tuck, focused on the plastic surgery practice, McNamara/Troy, and its two founding physicians, Sean McNamara and Christian Troy. Throughout its seven seasons, the series concentrated on the lives of the two plastic surgeons and the plastic surgeries they performed. Nip/Tuck helped catapult plastic surgery into popular culture, demonstrating the different procedures and treatments that are available.

4011_L

10. Church, Susan. Permanent Cosmetics: The Ultimate Guide for the Professional Technician. IIPC Permanent Makeup Supplies, 2012.

A service I am very interested in providing to my patients in the future is permanent cosmetics. Permanent cosmetics, also referred to as  Cosmetic tattooing, is a procedure of applying microscopic insertions of pigment into the dermal layer of the skin, enhancing your natural beauty. Permanent Cosmetics: The Ultimate Guide for the Professional Technician is a  comprehensive handbook on permanent cosmetics filled with information, techniques and advice about every procedure imaginable.

By jbarbour93

The Extinction of Printed Books: Fact or Fiction

A Pew Internet Research Center survey found that the percentage of Americans aged 16 and older who read an e-book grew from 16% in 2011 to 23% in 2012.3 As newer e-reader technology comes on the market and more books become available in e-book format, we can expect this statistic to grow exponentially. Digital readers like Kindle, Nook, and iPad are seemingly wiping out the need for printed books. While readers are getting the same information from a book in digital form, the question is, is the experience the same of that of reading a physical book?

While many avid readers enjoy the convenience of storing their libraries on a handheld device, others enjoy the sensory appeal of a printed book. The feeling of a book, its smell, and even the sound of its pages turning maintains the desire for traditional, physical books in today’s society. Despite this sect in modern culture, the use of digital books is evolving, surpassing print sales for the first time in 2011 and again in 2012.1 However, many believe that printed books won’t be going extinct anytime soon.

Recent sales have shown that the market for e-books and e-readers is actually declining. Interestingly, many people are using e-books to supplement their reading of traditional books.2 The desire for a physical book on a shelf demonstrates the book as an art form. The printed book contains elements of beauty that readers will always want and digital books will never be able to provide.

E-books, while undoubtedly a cool concept, will never fully replace printed books. Physical copies of works have remained resilient in society since the time of incunabulum. Besides providing readers with a story or information, books are pieces or art within themselves. From the type that puts the words of the work on the page to the binding that holds the book together, printed books are unlike digital books in a fundamental way – printed books are the real book beautiful.

1. Carr, Nicholas. “Never Mind E-books: Why Print Books Are Here to Stay.” The Wall Street Journal. N.p., 5 Jan. 2013. Web. 25 Apr. 2013.

2. Catone, Josh. “Why Printed Books Will Never Die.” Mashable. N.p., 16 Jan. 2013. Web. 25 Apr. 2013.

3.“eReaders, eBooks More Popular Than Ever, Survey Finds.” Huffington Post. N.p., 05 Apr. 2013. Web. 25 Apr. 2013.

By jbarbour93

The Meaning of Bookplates

Image

Have you ever picked up an old book and wondered in whose hands it had been in – a famous author, a celebrity, or maybe a former president? Throughout history, bookplates have allowed us to discover the previous ownership of a book just by opening it.  Bookplates not only state the possession of a book, they also provide a reflection of the owner, offering a personalized and beautiful design that relates to the owner in some way.

Bookplates come in handy when assigning value to a book. While owning a book that once belonged to some famous individual is often desired, a bookplate from a renowned book collector is equally as valuable. The idea that an esteemed book collector deemed a book important enough to add his or her bookplate, bestows subjective value to the book.2 In most cases, however, the addition of a bookplate is considered a “blemish” by many book collectors and usually lessens a book’s value.1 Despite this fact, collectors and mere book lovers alike, relish the idea of having their own custom bookplate pasted in the books of their own private libraries.

For my bookplate, I designed a 4” x 5.5” card with a classic black and white print. I incorporated a circular scroll frame with a Barbie silhouette in the middle to create a cameo effect. I chose to use the iconic Barbie silhouette because Barbie symbolizes beauty, a feminine attribute I hold at high regard. Working at a salon since I was 14 has demonstrated to me the significance of the beauty industry in our society. Because of the great cultural desire to be beautiful, I have decided to put my passions of esthetics and the sciences together, as I aspire to become a cosmetic dermatologist.

 Bookplates not only reveal the owner of a book – they are a true symbol of that person. Designing my own bookplate demonstrated this truth as I sought to find an emblem which best represented me.  By applying a bookplate to a book, a bibliophile can show their great love for books by branding them with a true representation of themselves.

  1. “Bookplates – Various Types, Desirability & How They Affect Book Values.” Empty Mirror. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2013. <http://www.emptymirrorbooks.com/collecting/bookplates.html&gt;.
  2. Fay, Joe. “The nuance of Bookplates: The more important the name, the more value attached….” Heritage Blog. Blogspot, 20 Aug. 2009. Web. 17 Aug. 2013. <http://heritageauctions.blogspot.com/2009/08/nuance-of-bookplates-more-important.html&gt;.
By jbarbour93

Edible Gray’s Anatomy

Gray's Anatomy2

When it came to choosing my inspiration for the 2nd Annual Edible Book & Tea at Marshall University, I first had trouble coming up with ideas. However, after I teamed up with Rachael Hager, our dreams and ideas for our edible book began to explode. Both aspiring doctors, Rachael and I chose the iconic medical text, Gray’s Anatomy by Henry Gray. The idea was great, but how would we transform the famous book into a delectable treat?

Throughout the semester, Rachael and I have both studied books from the 18th and 19th centuries. With our knowledge on older books, we decided to design our edible book as it would have looked when Gray’s Anatomy was first published in 1858. We wanted to include a classic leather binding, deckled edges, and aged yellow pages. Because Gray’s Anatomy is famous for its incredibly accurate and beautiful sketches of the human anatomy, we also wanted to somehow include some of its  images on our edible book.

Rachael and I watched countless tutorials on how to make an open book cake, fondant, and transfer images to a cake. For the body of the book, we baked two cakes. Once they cooled, we shaved both cakes, rounding them at the top to give the appearance of an open book. Using a recipe online, we made marshmallow fondant – a task I would not recommend for amateurs! Once the daunting task of mixing the fondant was finished, we divvied the fondant up in three parts, coloring a large portion a yellow-cream color, another portion was colored brown with cocoa powder, and a very small portion was turned gray by experimentally adding different colors to the fondant. The cream colored fondant was rolled out into a rectangular shape and carefully transferred to the cakes. To add to the cake’s creativity, we formed a scalpel and a pair of glasses out of fondant and brown edges for the leather binding. To finish our cake, we had two images printed with edible ink  to place on our cake, which turned out even more beautiful than I expected!

Constructing the edible book was a lot harder than I expected. However, making the edible book was a great reflection of the quality and care that goes into making a book. The art of bookbinding is a beautiful craft, which requires practice and artistic ability. Making an edible version of Gray’s Anatomy demonstrated this very concept which we have learned about throughout the semester in The Book Beautiful.

Preparing the cakes

Rachael whipping up the marshmallow fondant. It's not as easy as it sounds!

Rachael whipping up the marshmallow fondant. It’s not as easy as it sounds!

edible book5

Scalpel and glasses formed from fondant

Crumb coating the cakes before applying the fondant

Crumb coating the cakes before applying the fondant

Our finished masterpiece!

Our finished masterpiece!

By jbarbour93

My Future Library: A Book Collection on Dermatology & Cosmetic Surgery

cosmetic_surgery

While I do not have a wide array of books of my own at this point in my life, I do hope to start collecting in the future. As I fully intend on pursuing a career in medicine, I want to eventually accumulate a library of medical texts. However, I do not want just volumes containing modern day science and technology. I want my books to be even more appealing and thought-provoking.

I want my future library to contain older books on medicine, documenting some of the first trials of procedures that are now performed every day. I want my books to contain doctors’ scribbled handwriting in the margins, documenting the fervent way in which they were studied. I would love to own books that contained timeworn bookplates, book marks, scraps of paper – anything that would reveal each book’s story. All of these items, collectively called provenience, serve to document the history of a book and its previous owners.

Having an interest in the fields of dermatology and cosmetic surgery, I have found several books which I would like to add to my own collection. Published in 1597, Gaspare Tagliacozzi’s book De Curtorum Chirugia Per Insitionem, translated as The Surgery of Defects by Implantations, was the first book to document facial reconstruction, thoroughly accounting one of the earliest rhinoplasty procedures ever performed.1 In 1907, the first book exclusively on cosmetic surgery was privately published by Dr. Charles Miller, titled Cosmetic Surgery: the Correction of Featural Imperfections.2 My other desired books include Dr. Frederick Kolle’s 1911 book, Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery; Dr. Robert Willan’s famous dermatological work, On Cutaneous Diseases, published in 1808; and La chirurgie esthétique: son rôle social published in 1926 by Dr. Suzanne Noël, the first woman to focus her medical career solely on cosmetic surgery.3

These books are not only interesting because they are old, but they also have their own individual histories. Perhaps what is even more remarkable, is that these early works have aided in making cosmetic surgery a norm in today’s society, helping people look and feel beautiful. From their historical impact on medicine to their own record of previous shelves they have occupied, these books offer an antiquity and beauty that I would be pleased to have grace my own library.

1. “Ye olde nose job: The 16th century diagrams that detail the world’s earliest plastic surgery .” Mail
Online
. The Daily Mail, 28 Dec. 2010. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.

2. Aldea, Peter, and Patricia Eby. “Plastic Surgery – A Historical Timeline.” The Science of Beauty and    Pursuit of Perfection. Cosmetic Surgery Specialists of Memphis, PLLC, n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.

3. Hedén, Per. “Face Lifts.” Plastic Surgery and You. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Apr. 2013.

By jbarbour93

Punk Rock & Beautiful Books: The Green Day Art Project

Green-Day-Banner-6000-2000px-green-day-28104009-2560-853

The majority of my adolescence consisted of me head banging and playing air guitar to the catchy, pop-punk tunes of my favorite band, Green Day. From their two-and-a-half minute songs about intense teenage boredom to their more sophisticated nine minute rock opera ballads, Green Day’s music has always spoken to me.  Their music affects my emotions at a level that is hard to explain, triggering both my heart and memory. However, I am not their only fan who has been deeply touched by their music. Logan Hicks, a stencil artist from New York, was so inspired by Green Day’s 2009 album, 21ST Century Breakdown, he curated the Green Day Art Project, which has been documented in a beautiful book of the same title.

The book, The Green Day Art Project, features work from 18 renowned stencil artists with 21 pieces – all inspired by tracks from 21ST Century Breakdown.  The book, designed by Mark Murphy of Murphy Design Inc., captures the true grittiness and rebellion of the rock opera about the love story of two young punks, Christian and Gloria, incorporating urban spray painted stencil art and paint splatters. What makes the book even more unique is its colorful Global PSD printing and the handmade typography made from old window screens, adding to the book’s overall character and artistry. 1

The Green Day Art Project is not only beautiful because it features my all-time favorite band, but it is an artistic and handsomely made volume featuring vivid illustrations, original type, and high quality printing. Together, these elements of the book beautiful create a visual and artistic representation of the Green Day album. The Green Day Art Project documents Green Day’s music in book form, increasing its longevity to be enjoyed for future generations as I have over the years.

  1. Murphy, Mark. “The Green Day Art Project.” Scribble 08. Blogspot, 12 Sept. 2009. Web. 26 Mar. 2013.

21 Stencil Art Pieces featured in The Green Day Art Project

21 Stencil Art Pieces featured in The Green Day Art Project

 

By jbarbour93

Victorian Horror: The Folio Society’s Edition of Dracula

Image

DRACULA
Bookseller: Barnes & Noble

Price: $59.95

Book Description: 2008. A Beautiful and Artistic Special Edition of a Cult Classic Novel. 9½” x 6¼”. 392 pages. JET BLACK BUCKRAM BINDING, WITH BRILLIANT RED AND SILVER STAMPING, FOR THE FOLIO SOCIETY (stamp-signed at bottom of spine), front cover with an animated moon and owl and simplistic blood red scrollwork; spine embossed with the title, author, and publisher in a silver Gothic typeface complete with an  illustration of a blood droplet. The pages of this classic are set in Bulmer, bringing a sense of elegance with its high contrast and distinct letter shapes. WITH A TOTAL OF 8 BLACK AND WHITE ENGRAVED PLATES, consisting of images illustrated by Abigail Rorer of depictions of the suave monster, his victims, and his lair. A hand-colored frontispiece adds to the book’s overall beauty. Irish author, Bram Stoker’s, Dracula, presents the widespread fear of the paranormal and modern mindsets in Victorian Europe. With a harrowing account of a blood-sucking vampire, Count Dracula, Dracula captures the reader’s mind by evoking forbidden ideas of its time, including sexuality and foreign invasion. Brand-new, shipped directly from The Folio Society, England’s leading publisher of beautiful books for over 60 years. Founded in 1847 by Charles Ede, The Folio Society has sought to publish beautiful books that are affordable to everyone. By enhancing a book’s typography, illustration, paper, printing and binding, The Folio Society seeks to restore traditional values of excellence in book making. The Folio Society’s edition of Dracula presents a beautiful and exclusive printing of one of the most popular horror stories ever written.

dracula 1dracula 2  dracula 3

By jbarbour93

Binding and Rebinding: Book Preservation for the Future

Have you ever looked at one of your textbooks and wondered what it will look like a hundred years from now? Will it even survive that amount of time? With the right construction and care, the books we have today can last for the future to act as remnants of history. My book of study, Les Lepreux Ambulants de Constantinople, has withstood the test of time, being over one hundred years old. The reason for its durability is the quality of its binding, which adds to the book’s overall beauty and resilience.

Les Lepreux Ambulants de Constantinople, a French medical text, once exhibited one of the finest binding of its time. Georges Trautz immigrated to France in the early 1800s, leading to a bookbinding reform in France. Striving to put forth quality and care in to his work, his bookbinding became renown, and he is considered the foremost binder the nineteenth century. Trautz’s work caused France to become a bookbinding mecca during the 1800s.2 Despite the quality that my book’s binding once had, inevitable wear caused the leather to deteriorate over the years. Fortunately, there are many individuals who work to restore and preserve antique books, an artistry that is far underappreciated.

My book has obviously been rebound over the years; however, many of the aspects of the original binding are still present. Today, the book has a three-quarter binding; its boards containing the original leather and colorful marbled paper. The spine of the book has been replaced, using light brown leather blended with the darker leather of the initial spine. It also features raised bands, indicating the presence of cords underneath the cover material. While these raised bands are now most likely for decorative effect, they may be remnants of the original cords which held the book covers together.1 Replacing the spine has helped to both preserve the book for future use and enhance its splendor by incorporating embellishments, such as gold leaf stamping and an ornamental headband.

Les Lepreux Ambulants de Constantinople’s binding displays the excellence and quality of French bookbinding in the 1800s. Adding a new spine, while maintaining many of its original characteristics, improves the book as a beautiful object. By rebinding the book, it can be preserved and used for centuries more.

  1. Matthews, Brander. “Book Anatomy” About Bookbinding. About Bookbinding. n.d. Web. 28 Feb 2013.
  2. Matthews, Brander. “Bookbindings Old and New.” About Bookbinding. About Bookbinding, n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2013.
By jbarbour93

Printing: An Evolution

Have you ever looked at a book or magazine and wondered how it was made? How did the text even get printed on the pages you read? While today printing is extremely fast and efficient, this was not always the case. My book of study, Les Lepreux Ambulants de Constantinople, exhibits the quality and craftsmanship of printing during the Victorian era.  In both the text and the illustrations, the printing of my book works to further exemplify its beauty by demonstrating the development of printing techniques during its time.

During the 1800s, much advancement was made in letterpress printing, with major developments in both design and operation.  The innovations of steam-driven, cylinder, and rotary presses sped up the printing process considerably, greatly increasing productivity. In 1824, Daniel Treadwell invented the first mechanized press, the bed-and-platen press, by adding gears to a wood-framed platen press.4 By avoiding the problems of cylinder and handpresses, the bed-and-platen press was widely used throughout the 1800s, producing prints of higher quality.1 While the printing technique used in my book is unknown, the popularity and quality of the bed-and-platen press makes it a reasonable speculation for the source of my book’s printing.

The illustrations in my book were printed using the planographic technique of chromolithography, an advanced branch of lithography. Chromolithography uses the same basic chemical technique, in which the surface of the image on a stone is covered in a greasy substance, making it hydrophobic and ink receptive, while the rest of the plate is hydrophilic and ink repellent.3 The process uses multiple stones inked in different colors to create the colorful images.2 A newer technique of the time, the use of chromolithography adds to the character of my book, demonstrating the artistry of its printing.

The printing techniques used in my book exhibit the excellence and advancement of printing during the Victorian era. With new printing methods arising throughout the 1800s, Les Lepreux Ambulants de Constantinople captures the great evolution of printing during that period. The use of the bed-and-platen press and chromolithographic printing enhances the beauty of my book, offering a small, yet significant glimpse of printing history.

  1. Charles, Doug. “Bed and Platen Printing Machines.” Letterpress Printing. Letterpress Printing, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.
  2. “Chromolithographs.” Graphic Atlas. Graphic Atlas, 2013. Web. 22 Feb. 2013.
  3. “Printing Methods – Lithography.” Dynodan. Dynodan, n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2013
  4. “Printing Yesterday and Today.” Harry Ransom Center. The University of Texas at Austin, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.
By jbarbour93

Paper: A Blank Canvas

While we often take for granted the paper we use every day, just over a hundred years ago, paper was very expensive and even hard to obtain. With the advancements made during the 1800s, better techniques for papermaking were developed for faster and cheaper production. The types of papers used in my Victorian era book, Les Lepreux Ambulants de Constantinople are beautiful because they demonstrate the thoughtfulness of paper selection and the papermaking process of the time.

My book uses a matte, opaque, off-white paper. The matte finish creates a softer background for the text and is therefore easier to read.3  This higher quality paper exhibits slight speckling indicating that it is most likely made from plant material, however, much care was taken to eradicate the majority of the impurities. Interestingly, the paper used for some of the illustrations is different than that used for the main text of the book. The use of whiter and coated paper enables the colorful medical illustrations to vividly pop on the page, adding to the great detail.3

The 1800s were a transitional period for papermaking. While paper was originally made from rags, the demand for paper in the early 19th century brought about a search for alternative fibers, including trees, which the paper from my book is most likely made from.2 In 1843, a wood-grinding machine was invented, producing groundwood pulp that was great for papermaking.3 Additionally, trees were often converted to chemical pulp by use of strong acids. Trees contain naturally occuring acids like lignin,  which are also transferred to the pulp during the papermaking process.2 The acidic content of the paper used in my book contributes to the “acidic fingerprints,” which act as items of provenance in my book’s beautiful history.

The types of paper used and the way they were made give my book its own story, as it exhibits the best technology of the late 1800s, as well as the careful attention paid during the book making process. The book, itself, is an art form, and the paper is analogous to a blank canvas, the fundamental element of the creation.

  1. “History of Paper.” Paper Online. Paper Online, 2013. Web. 15 Feb. 2013.
  2. “Paper.” Rutgers School of Communication and Information. Rutgers University, 2006. Web. 15 Feb. 2013.
  3. “What is the Difference Between Coated and Uncoated Paper?.” Clear Print. Clear Print, 20 Mar. 2012. Web. 15 Feb. 2013.
By jbarbour93